Ancient Chinese Literature - Ancient China for kids

 

ancient chinese literature

Chinese literature, the body of works written in Chinese, including lyric poetry, historical and didactic writing, drama, and various forms of fiction. Chinese literature is one of the major literary heritages of the world, with an uninterrupted history of more than 3, years, dating back at. Chinese Literature. It is said that if one wants to know about the country’s culture, then one should go through its literature. China is the only country in the world, where literature has been written in one language for more than years. Chinese literature Earliest literary texts date from the Zhou dynasty (c– bc). This period produced the canonical writings of Confucianism: the Five Classics, including the first poetry anthology Shih ching (Classic of Odes); and the Four Books, containing doctrinal writings, such as The Book of escpalantesa.gaionally attributed to Confucius, the Shih ching is probably earlier still.


Chinese literature | escpalantesa.ga


Chinese literature, the literature of ancient and modern China. Early Writing and Literature It is not known when the current system of writing Chinese first developed. The oldest written records date from about BC in the period of the Shang dynasty, but the elaborate system of notation used even then argues in favor of an earlier origin.

From short inscriptions on bone and tortoiseshell used for divination ancient chinese literature, characters standing for ancient chinese literature words have been deciphered and are traceable through many notations to modern forms. Most of the oldest surviving works of literature were not written until the later centuries of the Chou dynasty c.

At this time was written most of what scholars of the Han dynasty BC—AD made into the canonical literature of Confucianism which also included their own commentariesalthough the current versions of these works, traditionally classified as the Wu Ching [five classics], contain interpolations. The Wu Ching, traditionally attributed to Confucius either as author or compiler, ancient chinese literature, consist of diverse books.

The Ch'un Ch'iu [spring and autumn annals] is an unadorned chronology of Lu, Confucius's native state, ancient chinese literature. The I Ancient chinese literature [book of changes] explains, often in allusive and ambiguous language, a system of divination, based upon the study of 64 hexagrams of whole and broken lines, ancient chinese literature. The Li Chi [book of rites] describes ceremonials and an ideal Confucian state.

The Shu Ching [classic of documents or book of history] contains historical records, many of them known to be later forgeries, ancient chinese literature. While some of these works contain verse, the main collection of poetry in the Wu Ching is the Shih Ching [classic of songs or book of ancient chinese literature, made up of poems. Written in simple rhyming stanzas, they tell of the peasant's life, of love, and of the wars of the feudal states. During the Sung dynasty — selections from the Li Chi and two other works were formed into the Ssu Shu [four books]; they were thought to embody the quintessence of Confucian teachings.

Other important early books include the Tao Te Ching [classic of the way and its power], traditionally ascribed to Lao Tzuand the work of Chuang-tzu. These two books, which form the chief literature of Taoismprobably circulated in their present form from the 2d cent. BC The early Chinese books originally appeared in the cumbersome form of strips of bamboo. Silk was substituted as a writing material in the 2d cent.

BC, and the invention of paper in the 2d cent. AD was responsible for a great increase in the number of books, ancient chinese literature. The method of printing whole pages from wooden blocks was discovered under the T'ang dynasty — and was perfected and in widespread use by the 10th cent. This technology permitted an enormous increase in the number of copies available of any book, ancient chinese literature. Styles of Literature Over time, the nature of the language in which the literature of China was written diverged sharply, producing two main styles of writing, one composed in a specifically literary language and the other in the vernacular.

Both strands produced their own very different styles of literature, and both styles reflected their own characteristic language. Literary Style The literary style was exceedingly concise and was unmatched for its vigor, richness, and symmetry.

Historical and literary allusions abounded, and finally special dictionaries were required for their elucidation. In poetry the relatively simple prosody of the Chou period was followed by systems of more minutely prescribed forms. The lines, which rhymed, had to be matched syllable by syllable in both part of speech and intonation.

By the T'ang period the prosodic ancient chinese literature no longer suited the spoken structure of the everyday language; they continued to be observed in spite of changes in pronunciation. It is generally agreed that China's greatest poetry was written in ancient chinese literature T'ang dynasty.

In the succeeding Sung dynasty Su Tung-p'o was perhaps the foremost poet. Translations of T'ang and Sung poetry strongly influenced the modern imagist school in English see imagists. Chinese lyrics are generally very short, unemphatic and quiet in manner, and limited to suggesting a mood or a scene by a few touches rather than painting a detailed picture. Intellectual themes and narratives are comparatively rare. Many varieties of learned prose have also been written in China.

Notable for accuracy and objectivity are the series of dynastic histories produced since Han times; the famous Shih chi [records of the historian] c. Chinese lexicography developed in response to multiplication of characters. The last of a great series of dictionaries still in standard use was produced in the reign of K'ang Hsi — So-called encyclopedias, actually extracts from existing works, have been occasionally compiled; one such work of the Ming dynasty — ran to over 11, short volumes and appeared in three manuscript copies.

Vernacular Style While the literati were cultivating polite literature during the T'ang and Sung periods, prose and verse of a popular nature began to appear. It was written in the spoken vernacular rather than in the classical literary language, and scholars regarded it with scorn. The vernacular style later developed into the great novels of the Ming period that followed.

Both the drama and the novel proved immensely popular, ancient chinese literature. Thus the 13th cent. San Kuo or Romance of the Three Kingdoms, ; it is set in the Three Kingdoms period — and ancient chinese literature heroic deeds and chivalrous exploits. Another historical romance is the Shui Hu Chuan tr. All Men Are Brothers,a picaresque tale of men forced by the venality of officials to become bandits, ancient chinese literature.

The Hsi Yu Chi tr. Monkey, is an allegorical tale, full of the supernatural, concerning the adventures of a Buddhist pilgrim on a journey to India, ancient chinese literature. The Chin P'ing Mei tr. The Golden Lotus, by contrast portrays domestic life and amorous intrigue; it is marked by realistic incident and the interplay of human relationships.

The greatest Chinese novel is considered to be Hung Lou Meng tr. With an unrivaled gift for subtle characterization and plot construction, ancient chinese literature, the author recounts the declining fortunes of an aristocratic family. The Early Twentieth Century After the republican revolution authors turned away from the classical modes of composition, and many writers notably Hu Shih and Lu Xun advocated writing in the baihua vernacular.

The change in Chinese education from preoccupation with the classic literature to scientific and technological subjects reduced mastery of the traditional literary skills as did the abolition of the civil service examinations for official posts, which had been based on a knowledge of the Four Books of the Confucian canon.

The use of characters instead of an alphabet persisted, however; this made older writings accessible and permitted the Chinese, who speak widely different dialects, amounting to different languages, to communicate with one another.

The use of baihua has proved especially effective in prose. Translations of Western books frequently appeared in China, and the novelists of the republican period were greatly influenced by European writers. During the s and 40s several talented novelists came to the fore, including Mao TunLao Sheand Shen Ts'ung—wen, while modernist poets such as Ai Ch'ing experimented with Western—style free verse. Literature in the Communist Era Fiction during the first years after the Communist revolution depicted the great social transformations taking place.

Party leaders advocated socialist realismwhich was ancient chinese literature by strict adherence to party doctrine and by a narrow emphasis on the credible depiction of external reality; it inhibited writers' creativity and led to stagnation.

The Hundred Flowers Campaign —57 encouraged writers and other intellectuals to voice criticisms of party policy. Those who did ancient chinese literature were soon punished during the antirightist campaign, when they were denounced and either imprisoned or sent to labor reform camps. Many, such as Wang Meng and Zhang Xianliangwere to remain confined for over two decades. Even harsher was the —76 Cultural Revolutionancient chinese literature, during which thousands of intellectuals were sent to ancient chinese literature on distant farms.

Some writers, such as Lao Shewere either murdered or committed suicide. Following Mao Zedong 's death in and Deng Xiaoping 's consolidation of power instrictures on literary freedom were relaxed. The first stories from this period relate the nightmarish experiences of the Cultural Revolution —the "literature of the wounded. Many works struggled with general social issues, such as official corruption and overcrowding; feminist issues were treated in novels by women writers such as Zhang Jie and Wang Anyi.

Reportage literature, a hybrid of journalism and fiction, grew popular, ancient chinese literature. Novelists experimented with stream of consciousness and other narrative techniques, while the Misty School of poets, exemplified by Bei Dao, Duo Duo, and Gu Cheng, developed a fusion of various modernist styles.

Han Shaogong, Ah Chengand others developed a "seeking roots" ancient chinese literature, characterized ancient chinese literature rural settings, geographical and botanical descriptions, and the incorporation of local dialects and folklore. Zhang Xianliang, ancient chinese literature, Gu Hua, ancient chinese literature, and Can Xue were prominent among the regional writers who emerged, most notably from China's far west and south.

After the massacre of prodemocracy demonstrators in Tiananmen Square June 4,many writers fled China, fearing government reprisals for their ancient chinese literature of the democracy movement. Most continue to write in exile, publishing their work in literary journals in Hong KongTaiwan, and overseas. Bibliography A pioneering translator of the classic Confucian and Taoist texts was James Legge, whose works, still standard, appear in many volumes. Translations of individual classics include A.

Waley, tr. Wilhelm and C. Baynes, tr. Carlgren, tr. Ch'an, tr. Dobson, tr. Watson, ancient chinese literature, tr. Lau, tr. Wu, tr. General anthologies of Chinese literature in translation include C. Birch, ed. Chang, Chinese Literature —83 ; and V. Collections of short stories, new and old, include C. Levenson, W. Bauer, ancient chinese literature, and H.

Franks, tr. Snow, ed. Anthologies of Chinese poetry include W. Bynner and K. Kiang, tr. Hawkes, tr. Davis, ed.

 

Ancient China: Literature

 

ancient chinese literature

 

Chinese literature, the body of works written in Chinese, including lyric poetry, historical and didactic writing, drama, and various forms of fiction. Chinese literature is one of the major literary heritages of the world, with an uninterrupted history of more than 3, years, dating back at. Chinese literature Earliest literary texts date from the Zhou dynasty (c– bc). This period produced the canonical writings of Confucianism: the Five Classics, including the first poetry anthology Shih ching (Classic of Odes); and the Four Books, containing doctrinal writings, such as The Book of escpalantesa.gaionally attributed to Confucius, the Shih ching is probably earlier still. Sep 26,  · Key Results. It was found that the earliest record of the eggplant documented in ancient Chinese literature was in a work from 59 escpalantesa.ga far as is known, this is the earliest reliable and accurately dated record of eggplant in escpalantesa.ga by: